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The Gettysburg Address

Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.

Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.

But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract.The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.

The Mayflower Compact

We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, etc.

Having undertaken, for the Glory of God and advancement of the Christian Faith and Honour of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the First Colony in the Northern Parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, Covenant and Combine ourselves together into a Civil Body Politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the Colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France and Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini 1620.

Leaders of the United States of America

President Vice-President Years in Office
George Washington John Adams 1789-1797
John Adams Thomas Jefferson 1797-1801
Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr, George Clinton 1801-1809
James Madison George Clinton, Elbridge Gerry 1809-1817
James Monroe Daniel D. Tompkins 1817-1825
John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun 1825-1829
Andrew Jackson John C. Calhoun, Martin Van Buren 1829-1837
Martin Van Buren Richard Mentor Johnson 1837-1841
William Henry Harrison John Tyler 1841
John Tyler   1841-1845
James K. Polk George M. Dallas 1845-1849
Zachary Taylor Millard Fillmore 1849-1850
Millard Fillmore   1850-1853
Franklin Pierce William R. King 1853-1857
James Buchanan John C. Breckinridge 1857-1861
Abraham Lincoln Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson 1861-1865
Andrew Johnson   1865-1869
Ulysses S. Grant Schuyler Colfax, Henry Wilson 1869-1877
Rutherford B. Hayes William A. Wheeler 1877-1881
James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur 1881
Chester A. Arthur   1881-1885
Grover Cleveland Thomas A. Hendricks 1885-1889
Benjamin Harrison Levi P. Morton 1889-1893
Grover Cleveland Adlai E. Stevenson 1893-1897
William McKinley Garret Hobart 1897-1901
Theodore Roosevelt Charles W. Fairbanks 1901-1909
William Howard Taft James S. Sherman 1909-1913
Woodrow Wilson Thomas R. Marshall 1913-1921
Warren G. Harding Calvin Coolidge 1921-1923
Calvin Coolidge Charles G. Dawes 1923-1929
Herbert Hoover Charles Curtis 1929-1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt John Nance Garner, Henry A. Wallace 1933-1945
Harry S. Truman Alben W. Barkley 1945-1953
Dwight Eisenhower Richard Nixon 1953-1961
John F. Kennedy Lyndon B. Johnson 1961-1963
Lyndon B. Johnson Hubert Humphrey 1963-1969
Richard Nixon Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford 1969-1974
Gerald Ford Nelson Rockefeller 1974-1977
Jimmy Carter Walter Mondale 1977-1981
Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush 1981-1989
George H. W. Bush Dan Quayle 1989-1993
Bill Clinton Al Gore 1993-2001
George W. Bush Dick Cheney 2001-2009
Barack Obama Joe Biden 2009-

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